中国城市生活垃圾排放现状及成分分析_杜吴鹏

中国城市生活垃圾排放现状及成分分析

杜吴鹏1

,高庆先

2*

,张恩琛3,缪启龙4,吴建国

2

11中国科学院大气物理研究所,北京 10002921中国环境科学研究院,北京 100012

31沈阳市环境卫生工程设计研究院,辽宁沈阳 11001341南京信息工程大学,江苏南京 210044

摘要:城市生活垃圾在填埋处理过程中会向大气排放甲烷,增加大气中温室气体的含量,对全球气候变化产生一定的影响.采用数学统计方法,通过对中国城市生活垃圾清运量的变化趋势及影响因子分析,证实了城市生活垃圾的产生与非农业人口数量、国民经济发展水平、城市建成区面积以及城市人口数量和城市数量等因子有较好的相关关系.通过对代表城市的垃圾成分进行调查分析,结合历史资料,得出中国城市生活垃圾成分有区域和时间变化特征:南方城市和大城市的有机物与可回收物含量高于北方城市和中小城市,而无机物含量则相反;有机物含量随时间基本上呈上升趋势,无机物含量则呈下降趋势,但近些年有机物和无机物含量均逐渐趋于平稳,变化不是很大.关键词:城市生活垃圾;排放;产量;清运量;成分

中图分类号:X705 文献标识码:A 文章编号:1001-6929(2006)05-0085-06

The Emission Status an d Composition Analysis of Municipa l Solid Waste in China

DU Wu -peng 1

,GAO Qing -xian 2

,ZHANG En -chen 3

,MI AO Q-i long 4

,W U Jian -guo

2

1.Institu te of Atmospheric Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029,China

2.Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences,Beijing 100012,China

3.Shenyang Environ -Engineering Design and Research Institute,Shenyang 110013,China

4.Nanjing University of Informati on Sciences and T echnology,Nanjing 210044,Chi na

Abstract :The municipal solid waste treated in land fill can emit the methane to the atmosphere and increase the greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere,which has influences on the global climatic change.The statistic method was used to analyze the correlation of generating amount of municipal solid waste (MSW)wi th other driving factors,such as non -agriculture population,GDP and area of built di strict as well as the numbers of cities,etc.Based on the historical data analysis,survey in selected cities and calculation of MSW,the characters and trends of MSW were studied.The results show that the organic substance con ten t and reusable material of MSW in south or big cities are higher than in north or medium and s mall cities,but the inorganic substance content is reverse.The organic composition has an increasing trend and the inorganic composition has a decreasing trend,but the trends chan ge to steady gradually and the composition of municipal solid waste stabilizes in the same level in recent years.

Key words :municipal solid waste;emission;generating amount;transportation amount;composi tion

收稿日期:2006-04-16

作者简介:杜吴鹏(1981-),男,河南安阳人,博士研究生.*责任作者

随着中国人口的增长、城市化和经济发展以及居民生活水平的不断提高,城市生活垃圾的产生量日益增多,垃圾处理己成为限制城市化进程和城市经济发展的重大问题之一.目前中国城市生活垃圾

的处理方式多以填埋为主

[1)2]

,但垃圾中的有机物

在填埋状态下将发生厌氧分解,产生甲烷并排放到大气中,是大气温室气体的重要来源之一.据估计,全球垃圾填埋处理释放的甲烷总量为210@107

~710@107

t P a,约占人为甲烷排放总量的6%~20%

[3]

.甲烷的温室效应增温潜能(GWP)相当于同

等质量二氧化碳的21倍[4]

,因此生活垃圾填埋处理

第19卷 第5期

环 境 科 学 研 究Research of Environmental Sciences

Vol.19,No.5,2006

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