# Handbook of PI and PID Controller Tuning Rules - [Book Review]

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PID Kickoff

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ll of the book reviews in this issue are devoted to propor-tional-integral-derivative (PID) control, which is the focus ofthis issue’s special section. We bring you reviews of four books.The book by O’Dwyer provides encyclopedic coverage of PIDtuning rules developed over the past half-century. Next, thebook by Silva, Datta, and Bhattacharyya focuses on PID controlof delay systems of the type considered by Ziegler and Nichols.The third review discusses an edited volume of papers cover-ing a broad range of topics. Finally, the recent book by Åströmand Hägglund, which is effectively the third edition of their clas-sic work on PID controllers, is reviewed.

As the associate editor for book reviews, I am continuallylooking for new books to review. If you are the author of arecently published or soon-to-be-released book relating toany aspect of systems and control, please contact me.

My goal is to make this department as inclusive as possi-ble, covering everything from monographs and textbooks topopular books. I encourage suggestions for books to bereviewed as well as volunteers to review books.

Scott Ploen

sploen@grover.jpl.nasa.gov

Handbook of PI and PID Controller

Tuning Rules

BY AIDAN O’DWYER

The first controllers with propor-tional, integral, and derivative(PID) feedback control actionbecame commercially availableduring the 1930s. The 1940s sawImperial College Press,widespread acceptance in indus-London, 2003, 392 pp.,

try of pneumatic PID controllers,US$77.00

and their electronic counterparts

ISBN 1-8609-4342-X

entered the market in the 1950s.Digital hardware has been rou-tinely used since the 1980s with significant impact on processcontrol. Even several decades after three-mode controllerswere introduced, the vast majority of controllers used in thechemical process industry are based on PI/PID models [1]. Thepopularity of these controllers has led to research on tuningmethods, resulting in hundreds of publications on this topic[2]–[9]. Ziegler-Nichols tuning relations [10] and Cohen-Coontuning rules [12] are among the earliest published methods.Tuning relations based on error criteria [7], as well as morerecent model-based tuning rules such as internal model control

92IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE

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FEBRUARY 2006(IMC) [12] and direct synthesis [13], offer improvements overearlier tuning methods. Tuning rules also exist for unstableprocesses [14] as well as for tuning in the presence of plant-model mismatch [15].

Despite the numerous approaches available for controllertuning, surveys indicate that poorly tuned control loops areabundant in industry [16]. In fact, some control loops are notproperly tuned when they are implemented, while otherloops are not updated sufficiently often [16]. This situation ismotivation for O’Dwyer’s book, which provides a compre-hensive summary of PI and PID controller tuning relationspublished over the last six decades. Special attention is givento the use of a consistent notation for these tuning methods.

CONTENTS OF THE BOOK

Handbook of PI and PID Controller Tuning Rulesis structured intofive chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 provides a generalintroduction to the topic, while Chapter 2 presents backgroundmaterial needed for using the controller tuning tables presentedin Chapters 3 and 4. The book concludes in Chapter 5 with adiscussion of performance and robustness issues. A moredetailed description of the contents of the book is given below.Chapter 2 presents PI and PID controller structures thatappear in the literature as well as in process control equipment.A list of process models with time delay provides the founda-tion for defining the tuning rules in the remainder of the book. The controller tuning rules for PI and PID controllers arepresented in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. Before a controllercan be tuned, it is necessary to specify the structure of the con-troller as well as the form of the model used to represent thedynamic response of the controlled variables. Once this infor-mation is determined, the reader can compute tuning parame-ters using the formulas presented in Chapters 3 and 4. Thesechapters contain a total of 112 tables.

Analytical calculations are provided in Chapter 5 for gainand phase margins of PI/PID controllers when the processmodel consists of a first-order plus time-delay transfer func-tion. These calculations are graphically illustrated for severaltuning methods and varying ratios of the time delay to theplant time constant. The results from this chapter are takenfrom work of the author [17], [18].

CONTRIBUTION OF THE TEXT

The summary of controller tuning methods and the referencelist are comprehensive. The core information of the book ismostly provided in table form. Unfortunately, little back-ground material is presented on the ideas behind the con-troller tuning methods; instead, the reader is referred to therelevant references. Overall, the emphasis is on summarizingmethods, with little information given on the advantages anddisadvantages of different techniques.

1066-033X/06/$20.00©2006IEEE

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