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机械工业出版社 2004年3月第1版

20.9 MACHINABILITY

The machinability of a material usually defined in terms of four factors:

1、 Surface finish and integrity of the machined part;

2、 Tool life obtained;

3、 Force and power requirements;

4、 Chip control.

Thus, good machinability good surface finish and integrity, long tool life, and low force And power requirements. As for chip control, long and thin (stringy) cured chips, if not broken up, can severely interfere with the cutting operation by becoming entangled in the cutting zone.

Because of the complex nature of cutting operations, it is difficult to establish relationships that quantitatively define the machinability of a material. In manufacturing plants, tool life and surface roughness are generally considered to be the most important factors in machinability. Although not used much any more, approximate machinability ratings are available in the example below.

20.9.1 Machinability Of Steels

Because steels are among the most important engineering materials (as noted in Chapter 5), their machinability has been studied extensively. The machinability of steels has been mainly improved by adding lead and sulfur to obtain so-called free-machining steels.

Resulfurized and Rephosphorized steels. Sulfur in steels forms manganese sulfide inclusions (second-phase particles), which act as stress raisers in the primary shear zone. As a result, the chips produced break up easily and are small; this improves machinability. The size, shape, distribution, and concentration of these inclusions significantly influence machinability. Elements such as tellurium and selenium, which are both chemically similar to sulfur, act as inclusion modifiers in resulfurized steels.

Phosphorus in steels has two major effects. It strengthens the ferrite, causing

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