一种由人类步行启发的半被动双足步行机器人

第42卷第4期 2011年4月 中南大学学报(自然科学版) Vol.42 No.4 Journal of Central South University (Science and Technology) Apr. 2011

一种由人类步行启发的半被动双足步行机器人

倪修华,陈维山,刘军考,石胜君

(哈尔滨工业大学 机器人技术与系统国家重点实验室,黑龙江 哈尔滨,150001)

摘要:针对半被动双足步行机器人所采用的控制方法大多较为复杂,并且缺乏控制参数对机器人性能影响的定量分析,从人类步行的生物力学研究得到启发,提出一种半被动双足步行机器人的控制方法,并定量分析该控制方法各参数对机器人性能的影响。在机器人摆动腿与地发生碰撞后开始于髋关节处施加方波力矩,作为动力输入。采用步态敏感范数衡量机器人的稳定性,采用无量纲步行能耗衡量机器人的步行效率。以稳定性、效率和步行速度作为机器人性能评价指标,通过仿真得到力矩、力矩作用时间和斜坡角度3个参数对机器人性能的影响。由于力矩在1个步行周期中没有做负功,该机器人具有与人类步行相似的高能量效率。该机器人能够实现沿上坡、下坡和平地步行。

关键词:半被动步行;机器人;稳定性;效率;速度

中图分类号:TP24 文献标志码:A 文章编号:1672 7207(2011)04 1028 07

A quasi-passive dynamic walker inspired by human walking

NI Xiu-hua, CHEN Wei-shan, LIU Jun-kao, SHI Sheng-jun

(State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China)

Abstract: Since the present control methods for quasi-passive dynamic walkers are complex, and few quantitative study of the control parameters on the performance of quasi-passive dynamic walkers has been done, inspired by biomechanics in human walking, a control method for the quasi-passive dynamic walker and quantitative control parameters on the performance of the quasi-passive dynamic walker were studied. After the impact between swing leg and ground, a torque of square wave was applied at the hip as power supply. The gait sensitivity norm was used to quantify the stability, and the dimensionless cost of transport was used to quantify the walking efficiency. Stability, efficiency and velocity were used as three performance criteria. The effects of the amplitude of torque, the application time of torque and slope angle on the performance criteria were obtained by simulations. Since the torque does not do negative work during the whole walking period, the walker has a high efficiency as human walking. The robot can walk up a slope, walk down a slope and walk on flat ground.

Key words: quasi-passive dynamic walking; robot; stability; efficiency; velocity

McGeer[1]于1990年提出了被动步行的理论,并通过仿真和实验验证了无驱动与主动控制的被动步行机器人可以沿斜坡向下稳定行走。 根据被动步行的理论,许多学者在踝关节或者髋关节处加入主动驱动与研制了多款可沿平地行走的半被动步行机器控制[2 3],

收稿日期:2010 04 04;修回日期:2010 06 22 基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(59705011)

通信作者:倪修华(1980 ),男,江西九江人,博士研究生,从事仿生机器人研究;电话:13651830703;E-mail:nixiuhua@http://www.mianfeiwendang.com

人。与基于零力矩点轨迹规划方法研制的以Asimo为代表的传统机器人相比,被动步行机器人具有更简单而且被动步行机器人的的结构和更高的能量效率[4 5],

行走步态更加自然,与人的行走步态更加相似[6]。由于半被动步行机器人不采用轨迹规划与跟踪的控制方

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