新托福阅读听课笔记列举题的解题步骤和技巧

新托福阅读听课笔记列举题的解题步骤和技巧

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一、问题形式

列举题,也叫排除列举题,ETS称之为“否定事实信息题”(negative factual information question)。基本形式如下:

According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true of X?

The author’s description of X mentions all of the following EXCEPT

二、解题技巧

列举题的基本思路是排除,排除与原文相符的选项,与原文相矛盾的选项或原文未提到的选项是正确答案。注意问题中的否定词Not 和EXCEPT。

1.列举题的解题步骤

1)看题干找关键词

问题中有关键词的,可以根据它定位,然后将四个选项与定位的地方进行比较。如果没有关键词,可以先定位于上一个问题对应的段落之后的段落。

2)阅读四个选项

题干中没有线索的,可以阅读四个选项,总结其中的共同点进行定位,或者根据各个选项中的关键词一一进行定位。

3)排除与原文相符的选项

将各个选项与原文比较以后,排除其中符合原文意思的选项,剩下的一个选项,或者与原文相矛盾,或者在原文未提到,就是正确答案。例如,

The opposite of an opportunist is a competitor. These organisms tend to have big bodies, are long-lived, and spend relatively little effort each year on reproduction. An oak tree is a good example of a competitor. A massive oak claims its ground for 200 years or more, outcompeting all other would-be canopy trees by casting a dense shade and drawing up any free water in the soil. The leaves of an oak tree taste foul because they are rich in tannins, a chemical that renders them distasteful or indigestible to many organisms. The tannins are part of the defense mechanism that is essential to longevity. Although oaks produce thousands of acorns, the investment in a crop of acorns is small compared with the energy spent on building leaves, trunk, and roots.

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